Concordium is a science-based proof-of-stake blockchain, the first in the world with identification built into the protocol and designed to meet regulatory requirements. See our Chairman of the Foundation, Lars Seier Christensen, describe the vision of Concordium.
Concordium CCD is a standard blockchain asset with customizable options, directly in Layer-1. Concordium is supporting secure transfers and immediate transaction settlement for multiparty transactions built in Layer-1. Concordium Smart Contracts in Layer-1 are stateless smart contracts with numerous possibilities for governed operations. These capabilities can be applied to different sectors and industries, such as IoT, Supply Chain finance, Mobility-as-a-service, as well as tackling interoperability between other platforms and blockchains.
Concordium is trying to solve the quadrilemma of scalability, security, decentralization, and regulation. We believe it is necessary to solve for compliance and regulatory requirements in order to unlock trillions of potential business transactions using blockchain.
Yes. You can read more about it here and here.
The Concordium Platform is designed to be fast, secure and cost-effective, which is why Concordium and Kudelski Security have been working together to perform threat modeling, code review, and “scenario based” assessment of the underlying code and logic of the Concordium software. The scope of work is split into four categories: Device, Network, Backend and Reverse Engineering.
We are satisfied with the audit returns and positive feedback and will continue to do everything to make Concordium as secure as possible. However, we understand that in the world of security there is never an end to the work that can be done, therefore we ask our community to help us identify potential vulnerabilities by submitting a report or alerting the team and the community on our community channels on Discord or Telegram.
CCD is the Concordium Blockchain Platform’s native payment coin.
The CCD is used to pay for transaction fees (including smart contract operations), staking, as a reward for node operators, and as a collateral/settlement medium.
The CCD is built from the ground up to be compliant and business-friendly and to avoid the pitfalls of using a network that has known illicit transactions that taint the supply. The CCD is necessary to incentivize the development, support, and security of the Concordium network.
The amount of CCD minted daily is determined by a parameter on chain, which is currently set so that in a year the total CCD is increased by 8%. The governance committee can change this parameter, which they did in December of 2023 from 10% to 8%.
A validator is a party that runs the Concordium consensus algorithm on their computer (or in the cloud). Validators order the transactions submitted to the chain, and build the chain block by block. They are rewarded for their work with a portion of the newly minted CCD and of the transaction fees.
If you have more than 500K CCD, you can stake your CCD as a validator to get block rewards. Here is the guide how to become a validator.
If you want to earn rewards but don't want to be a validator, you can delegate CCD to a staking pool or to passive delegation. To learn more, visit here . You can also use a staking service providers like Northstake*.
*Please note these are third party services.
Validators on our system have two sources of income: 1) transaction fees and 2) minting - which is distributed in the form of block and finalization rewards. The new minted CCDs are distributed as follows:
● 10% is paid to Concordium Foundation.
● 90% is rewarded to staking pools proportional to the number of blocks they produce.
The transaction fees are distributed as follows:
● 45% is rewarded to the pool that produced the block containing the transaction.
● 45% is put in the GAS account, that is then shared with the subsequent validators.
● 10% of minted CCD goes to the Concordium Foundation.
A pool will also receive some rewards from the GAS account for every block produced, namely 25% of what the account contains at that point. The validator in the pool gets a share of the pool rewards proportional to their stake in the pool plus additionally a percentage of share of the delegators rewards set by the validator.
Yes, the Foundation receives 10% of CCDs minted on the Concordium blockchain and a portion of the transaction fees to ensure it has the resources necessary to continue the functioning of the network and its associated ecosystem.
You can find that schedule and more general tokenomics information here.
You can find info and for more details you can visit CCDSCAN .
Please remember that you are the only person who can access your private keys and no-one can recover your private keys if you lose them. In the future we suggest that you do a backup every time you create an account. Follow this guide to create your backup
Find an easy guide on how to install a Mobile Wallet on your phone here or watch our tutorial on Youtube If you have a Ledger Nano S or Ledger Nano S Plus hardware wallet, you can also install and use the Concordium Desktop wallet.
Please export the data from the Mobile Wallet to a file to make sure that you have a backup of your accounts, identities, and addresses. This way, all your accounts, identities, and your address book are saved in a file you can store in a safe location.
Please follow this video tutorial Or follow this written guide
CCD is listed on a number of exchanges and is offered for buying and selling by several crypto brokers and OTC trading desks. You can read more here
You can not buy CCDs for your usage on the Concordium blockchain without being identified.
There are many wallets built by the community that supports CCD. Concordium currently offers iOS and Android wallets and also supports hardware wallets via a desktop wallet that connects to Ledger Nano S and Ledger Nano S Plus.
The Concordium Foundation is the Swiss-based non-profit responsible for supporting the Concordium network and IP. Concordium Foundation has a responsibility to govern the Concordium blockchain and ensure further development will be done in a correct manner.
Concordium AG is contracted by the Foundation to build the initial release of the Concordium network. Concordium AG employs an internal science team.
COBRA stands for Concordium Blockchain Research Centre Aarhus, at Aarhus University, Denmark. COBRA produces cutting edge research into ZK proofs, consensus, and sharding, with a focus on getting this research reviewed, tested, and eventually implemented on our blockchain network. The Concordium Foundation is donating DKK 50 million (EUR 6.6 million) over five years for non-targeted research into blockchain technology. All research produced will be publicly available. Watch the inauguration ceremony for COBRA here.
The vision of the Concordium Foundation is for the Concordium network to eventually become a fully autonomous, open, permissionless blockchain. In the fully decentralized governance, the Transfer of control and decision-making has been given from the Concordium Foundation to the distributed network. Concordium envisions using a stake-based governance system, where the influence of stakeholders is proportional to their stake. The more value an actor has staked in the blockchain, the more likely they are to participate rationally in the governance.
Concordium is planning to fully decentralize the network over several years. Decentralization is a spectrum and all projects at the start have some degree of centralization, certain aspects are unavoidable. However, Concordium is implementing a roadmap that leads the network to a greater degree of decentralization than most projects.
The idea of interoperability is deeply ingrained in Concordium’s vision. As a system that is constantly evolving and innovating, we plan to make this vision for the Concordium platform a reality in the near future.
EUROe brings the Euro into Web3 and the DApps of the future. It lets your users transact in Euro without needing to worry about ‘crypto’, bitcoins and shady actors. In fact it takes the crypto out of crypto.
A payment method is key for developers on almost all applications. EUROe is a fully regulated, authorized payment instrument where one EUROe is the equivalent of a Euro.
Concordium is among the first networks to have a ‘native’ on-chain payment instrument available to all applications and developers with minimal integration and fuss. Concordium’s mission is to bring trust to Web3, and a secure payment instrument is part of that.
As of now (Jan 2024) there are just two regulated Euro based payment instruments for blockchain. EUROe is one of them.
It is difficult to imagine a commercial application where the transfer of value doesn’t happen. Buying an NFT or buying a beer all need real world payments, and 99% of users don’t want to transact in a weird cryptocurrency. Bringing a real world currency into the world of Web3 will transform the discussion.
Almost everything, but perhaps a couple things differ - you can charge a million of a Euro for a transaction - so direct billing for huge numbers of events becomes realistic. As an app developer, you no longer have to worry about Stripe or getting bank accounts or nonsense. You’ll be entirely in a crypto-native environment with crypto-payment specialists.
EUROe is a product of Membrane Finance who run, operate and manage all dealings with EUROe. Concordium is proud to associate themselves with an on-chain currency that uniquely helps developers and businesses building on Concordium.ID and Payments are both very complex in Web2. Concordium has simplified ID and now payments for the entire Web3 ecosystem.
No, EUROe is offered by Membrane Finance OY. Concordium Foundation supports organizations who want to bring innovation to the Concordium blockchain ecosystem.
Concordium has a solid Swiss / Danish background. The blockchain is built by people you can trust with real world values. EUROe is European and is fully licensed, all funds are 100% secure, representing a new beginning for crypto. As of 2025, non-regulated tokens will not be allowed in the European Union. In the end, it is the decision of those building as to whether they come to Concordium. We are pleased that the Membrane team recognises that Concordium is an interesting place to build and demonstrate the future of Web3 transactions.
You can see demo videos on the Concordium website, and of course, if you want to buy CCD, add them to your wallet and use them in an application or simply transfer them to friends for a single low transaction fee of approximately 10 cents regardless of amount, please feel free.
EUROe is a fully regulated stablecoin. One of the very first. There is an absolute guarantee that no matter what, the users will be able to redeem their funds in Euro from Membrane Finance. EUROe cannot depeg, it cannot disappear, the operators cannot run off with the cash. This is secured by the entire European regulatory system, and is underpinned by the ECB. Your funds cannot be invested or misused by the issuers, as opposed to most other stable coins that attempt to earn interest by investing in shares or bonds, even in other cryptos. There is no guarantee that their investments will not collapse in a stressed situation, and no guarantee that your deposits will be secure.
Every time a EUROe is minted, a corresponding amount must be deposited in a bank account of one of the systemic Euro banks. These banks are heavily supervised, and they cannot fail. The funds are within these banks, and are fully segregated from the activities of Membrane Finance. They cannot be used, invested or managed by the operators of EUROe.
For the first time, you will be able to build Web3 apps that transact using a currency that everyone understands; Euro. This will take a lot of the mystery and worry out of interacting with Dapps for customers, and if you combine with a nice wallet (see elsewhere for details on this) and a great user experience, then there is no reason why you cannot build applications on Concordium that scale to the internet itself-Payments are a nightmare in Web2 since they were never integrated into the fabric of the internet. A digital coin associated with identity solves this. Instant settlement, no way for users to undo transactions and total certainty that the ‘buyer’ is the buyer using Concordium’s ID framework will transform the Web3 experience. As a simple example, age limited products are a trivial task in the Concordium ecosystem. But you need not limit to age. Apps can issue credentials of any type, representing membership, XP or geography for example, and then use these to manage the user experience without exchanging personal information.
See our developer portal.
You can try this(https://euroe-demo.testnet.concordium.com/) super simple example application that shows how you can use Concordium’s ID layer and EUROe together. You can access the beer store if you are older than 18 and can pay with EUROe. You can get testnet EUROes from the faucet (https://concordium-faucet-dev.euroe.com/) to see how you can use it watch this video.
Even the most advanced user case would only involve you user in downloading an app that you develop, that includes the wallet code and speaking to Concordium distributed node apis.
EUROe represents the best risk-off strategy available on crypto today. Your funds are secure and there is no risk of any default or exchange rate risk.
A trading pair has been listed on Concordex with EUROe/CCD. The nature of a DEX is that anyone can create trading pairs.
Yes, EUROe is available on other chains. This adds to the volume and the reputation of stablecoin.
Yes, using the UI and API of EUROe itself, funds can be transferred between chains.
A Euro based stable coin has all the liquidity of the Euro itself at its disposal. Redemptions will always be at par, albeit there can be short processing delays during periods when the instant Euro clearing system is unavailable. Nevertheless, there should be no fear that funds will not be available.
Initially, two venues are available: Swipelux and Wert. Others will be online as soon. For larger transactions, Membrane Finance, the operator behind EUROe will facilitate. Please see their website.
Simply because of the security that EUROe gives.
Cash held in EUROe accounts can be considered as cash or cash equivalent from an accounting point of view. This is very different to other crypto assets.
No. Every on-chain EUROe is backed by a Euro in a bank account. There is no magic internet-money involved here.
As with all self custody applications, loss of keys can be catastrophic. We recommend taking normal precautions. Nevertheless there are provisions for the issuer to burn, seize or freeze funds, such that Membrane can address serious issues and recover lost funds in exceptional situations.
Yes, the funds are held in segregated accounts that cannot be used by anyone for anything. Just like bank accounts.
Membrane Finance OY.
Membrane Finance OY.
That this is a regulated payment instrument, under the EMD2 / EMI framework. It is similar to holding funds in many other European payment systems.
Yes, easily. Simply give your Concordium wallet address to your counterparty, if they also work with EUROe on Concordium, then they can simply transfer the funds. This is probably one of the cheapest and fastest ways of getting paid in Euro globally. Send a small amount first though.
Simply ask them to create a wallet on Concordium, and inform you of the address. You can transfer funds to them. They will need to use an ‘off ramp’ to receive Euro, or they can simply hold in their wallet and pay their suppliers. All at the simple transaction fee of approx 10 cents regardless of amount, globally.
You will need to exit via one of the ‘payment providers’, or via Membrane for larger amounts. You can expect AML/KYC requirements to apply, so be prepared with documentation.
A transaction costs less than 7.5 cents (Jan 2024). This is the network fee to Concordium node operators that secure the network. This fee will reduce as demand increases.
EUROe on Concordium has an extremely low carbon footprint. Details of the Concordium network are available here, but you can be reassured that a key part of the blockchain design has been the leading operating efficiency demanded by every responsible citizen today.
The update of the consensus protocol to ConcordiumBFT in September 2023 has increase the TPS of Concordium to 2000 in lab conditions. Blocks are currently being produced approximately every 2 seconds, and this rate could be increased if the network requires faster block time. Since the consensus protocol requires an extra block to be certified to finalize the previous one, the confirmation time for a transaction is 3-4 seconds, i.e., it takes 3-4 seconds between the moment a transaction is submitted to the chain and finalized.
Ideally, a node would have a system with at least 16GB of memory, a CPU with four cores, at a minimum connection of 1,000Mbps, for optimal performance. However, it will also be possible to run a Concordium node with regular consumer hardware.
Here is the link for system requirements to run a node.
The Identity Layer is comprised of several actors: users, trusted identity issuers, the Foundation, and revokers. Trust identity issuers provide users with identity objects to serve as validations of the individual’s identity, including proofs of certain attributes such as their age and nationality for example. The user can deploy accounts with all, or a subset, of the proofs from their identity object attached. This takes place on-chain, except for the identity objects themselves, which are stored off-chain. All identity-related transactions are governed by this engine. Renowned cryptographer, Professor Ivan Damgård gives an excellent overview of Concordium’s Identity layer in this video.
Concordium believes that the added ID layer is necessary to help bridge the gap between traditional businesses’ regulatory compliance and the blockchain space. By combining compliance and privacy features, the ID layer is a key link between real-world business regulatory compliance and the blockchain world.
The first trusted identity issuers will be on-boarded by the Foundation and delegated with the task of validating and issuing ID credentials to users. There will be a market for trusted identity issuers to process user accounts. These identity issuers give credentials to users that can then be used to deploy accounts on the network and engage with smart contracts.
When a user has an Identity Object from an Identity Issuer, they can then generate Credentials for an account. Credentials can be either attached to an existing account or used in the creation of a new account. A user can hold an indefinite number of accounts, however, the number of accounts per identity object may be restricted by the identity object itself. Listen to Professor Ivan Damgård give an excellent overview of Concordium’s Identity layer including ID credentials in this video.
An anonymity revoker is an organization that has legal rights in a specific jurisdiction. There is a publicly visible registry of anonymity revokers that is curated by the Concordium Foundation.
Unlocking (decrypt) all credential data is a non-automatic, interactive process initiated by an anonymity revoker. It requires cooperation between the anonymity revokers and the identity issuer. Each on their own cannot reveal the identity of the owner of the credential. Practically, anonymity revokers would require a court order or some law enforcement interaction in their jurisdiction to initiate the unlocking-process. Professor Ivan Damgård gives a good overview of how revocation works on the Concordium network in this video.
This largely depends on the usage of the network. If users are running computationally heavy smart contracts on the network, and there is a lot of activity per block, then the network will occupy a lot of memory. However, users do not need the entire chain to engage with the network. Light clients and finalization help reduce the need for users to carry the entire blockchain with them.
Our ID layer, zero-knowledge proof technology, and finality layer are unique in the industry, hence we prefer to not compare ourselves directly to any existing blockchain projects as our network opens up a new category of blockchains. However existing blockchains do incorporate different aspects of our network, such as ZK proofs, finality, proof-of-stake consensus and smart contracts. We believe Concordium is a new industry standard when looking at existing blockchain networks. We are the blockchain to enable the next wave of business transactions.
Yes. You can delegate to multiple validators but an account can only have one delegation. To delegate to multiple validators, you need multiple accounts.
Changes to the pools take effect every 24 hours. So increasing the stake, moving the stake between pools or between passive delegation and a staking pool all take effect at the pay day.
There is no minimum amount required to delegate stake to a pool or enable passive delegation. You just have to have enough CCD left in your disposable balance to cover transaction fees.
This depends on how much you delegate, the staking pool you select, the delegation commissions set by the pool owner, and how reliable this validator is. It also depends on how much stake the validator has. It is important to use CCDScan to research validators before delegating stake.
For example, suppose that you have a delegation to a pool where, to cover the costs of running the validator node, the pool owner has set that 10% of the delegators’ share of the pool rewards are awarded to the pool owner. Then suppose that a pool has 1,000,000 CCD staked and out of that you have delegated 10,000 CCD to the pool (1%). Suppose that in a 24-hour period this pool earns 500 CCD. Your delegation’s share of the rewards is 1% equal to 5 CCD. Of this amount, 10% (0.5 CCD) is awarded to the pool owner and you receive the remaining 4.5 CCD.
Yes, for certain changes there is a cool-down period built into the pool system. The cool-down period is three weeks. During the cool-down it is not possible to change the delegated amount or move the delegated amount to a different staking pool. The cool-down period is activated when you decrease the delegated amount or stop delegation entirely.
The cool-down period is there to provide stability to the blockchain and to make sure that a validator does not become unstable too quickly if delegators withdraw their stake.
Yes, you can change whether you want earnings restaked or not during a cool-down period.
No, if you are in a cool-down period, you cannot change the delegated amount until the cool-down period ends. The cool-down period is two weeks.
The amount is locked because you are in a cool-down period and the delegation amount cannot be changed. The cool-down period is two weeks when decreasing your delegation amount or stopping delegation.
You can see a list of all pools and some performance metrics on CCDScan.
You can research validator performance and pool reliability on CCDScan. For information about how to judge validator performance and reliability, see `validator management`.
If a validator closes their pool your delegation is moved to passive delegation.
It could be because the validator to whose pool you have delegated stake was not selected to stake a block. There are several reasons this could have happened. It might be a good idea to check the validator's performance regularly.
For CCD holders who do not want to regularly check the performance of a chosen pool but just want a stable way of earning rewards, passive delegation offers a low-risk, low-reward alternative. This staking strategy is not associated with a specific validator, so there is no risk of poor validator health. The trade off when choosing passive delegation is that the rewards will be less than what you may receive when delegating to a specific staking pool.
It is likely because the staking pool to which you were delegating has been closed. You can continue to delegate to passive delegation or select a new staking pool for your delegation
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